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The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics provides students with essential mathematical skills and knowledge. It develops the numeracy capabilities that all students need in their personal, work and civic life, and provides the fundamentals on which mathematical specialties and professional applications of mathematics are built.
                                                                                              The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics
The mathematics curriculum is developed into 2 strands:
                       Content strands
                       Proficiency Strands
Content strands
This area deals with the areas of mathematics that are taught and learnt.
They are:
Number and Algebra - including areas such as number and place value, addition subtraction, multiplication and division, decimals and fractions, money and financial mathematics.
Measurement and Geometry – including shape, using units of measurement such as kilograms , metres, centimetres,  square centimetres, location using grids, recognizing and working with shapes that have been rotated, turned or flipped,
Statistics and Probability – including ideas about chance and probability, graphing, data collecting and interpretation.
Proficiency strands
The proficiency strands describe the actions in which students can engage when learning and using the content.
They are:
Understanding - Students build an understanding of mathematical concepts, make connections between related concepts and begin to understand the connection between the “why” and “how” of mathematics,
Fluency - Students develop skills in choosing the correct procedures, carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately, and recalling factual knowledge and concepts readily.
Problem Solving - Students develop the ability to make choices, interpret, formulate, model and investigate problem situations, and communicate solutions effectively.
Reasoning - Students develop an increasingly sophisticated capacity for logical thought and actions, such as analyzing, proving, evaluating, explaining, inferring, justifying and generalising.
Further information regarding mathematics curriculum for particular grade levels can be found here.
Click here to see a video explaining the structure of the Australian Mathematics Curriculum.